Economic Effects of Container Shipping into World Seaborne Trade - English

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTAINERIZATION

1

History

1

Origins

1

Purpose built ships

2

Towards standards

3

Today

3

ISO standard Dimensions and payloads

4

Standard containers

5

Types

6

Double-stack containerization

6

INTERMODAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT

8

Introduction

8

Prehistory

8

History

8

Double-stacked container transport

10

Equipment

10

Containers

10

Handling equipment

11

Intermodal Vehicles

12

Rail Transport

12

Container ships

12

GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE

13

Shipping and the global economy

15

Volume and Value of World Trade

16

Conference System

17

Origin of conference system

17

Open and Close Conference

18

Features of Liner Conference

18

Organisation of Conferences

19

Advantages of Coference

20

Disadvantages of Conference System

20

INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION AND SUPPLY CHAINS

22

Status of Intermodal Freight

23

Role in Hypercompetition of Supply Chains

24

Focus on Changing Customer Requirements

25

CONTAINER SHIPPING AND PORTS: OVERVIEW

25

Introduction

26

Instability in liner shipping

26

Scale increases in vessel size

28

Co-operation, mergers and acquisitions

29

Landside logistics as a revenue base, cost control & source of differentiation

30

CONTAINER SHIPPING AND THE ECONOMY

34

Economic Effects

34

Containerport Efficiencies

35

Historic Costs

36

Time Dimensions

37

Global Effects

38

WORLD ECONOMIC BACKGROUND

39

Merchandise trade

40

WORLD SEABORNE TRADE

43

Overall seaborne trade

43

World shipments by country groups

44

Developed countries

44

Developing countries

45

Demand for shipping services

46

SECTORS OF WORLD SEABORNE TRADE

47

Liner shipments of containerized cargoes

47

STRUCTURE OF THE WORLD FLEET

50

The world containership fleet

50

PRO. OF THE WORLD FLEET, AND SUPPLY & DEMAND IN WORLDSHIPPING

52

OPERATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY

52

SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN WORLD SHIPPING

54

Comparison of Cargo Turnover and Fleet Ownership

56

THE LINER SHIPPING MARKET

59

Developments in liner markets

59

Concentration in liner shipping

60

FREIGHT LEVEL of CONTAINERIZED SERVICES

61

Chartering of containerships

61

Freight rates on main routes

62

Supply and demand in respect of main liner services

64

Liner freight index

68

Liner freight rates as percentage of prices for selected commodities

68

ESTIMATES OF TOTAL FREIGHT COSTS IN WORLD TRADE

69

CONTAINER PRODUCTION

71

Leasing containers

73

PORT AND MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENTS

75

Container Port Traffic

75

Improvements in port performance

80

Institutional Change and Port Development

82

INLAND TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENTS

90

Logistics

90

REVIEW OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTS : ASIA

94

Economic Background

94

Demographic background

96

Containerization

96

Direction of containerized trade

96

Container port traffic

96

Asian container terminal operators

98

Container manufacturing

100

Asian Fleet Development

100

Asian merchant fleet

100

CONCLUSION

101

   
   

LIST of TABLES & FIGURES:

•  P07 Top 10 container shipping companies in order of TEU capacity.
•  P36 Global Containerized Trade, 2001 to 2011 (Forecast).
•  P40 World Economic Growth, 2003 to 2006.
•  P41 Growth in volume of merchandise trade, by geographical region.
•  P43 Development of International Seaborne Trade, selected years.
•  P44 International Seaborne Trade for selected years.
•  P47 Graphic of Annualy Transportation Tonnages.
•  P51 Distrubition of the World Fleet and DWT Capasity of Containership.
•  P52 Ton-Miles performed DWT of total World Fleet.
•  P53 Estimated productivity of tankers, bulk carriers, combined carriers.
•  P54 Analysis of tonnage surplus by main type of vessel.
•  P55 Growth of Supply and Demand in Container Shipping.
•  P56 Trends in surplus capacity by main vessel types.
•  P58 Maritime Engagement of 25 Major Trading Nations.
•  P60 Growth of the World Cellular Container Fleet.
•  P63 Freight Rates per TEU on the three Major Liner Trade Routes.
•  P65 Estimated Cargo Flows on Major Trade Routes.
•  P66 Europe-Far East Trade: Percentage slot capacity share by line / grouping.
•  P70 Estimates of total freight costs as a percentage of value imports in world trade.
•  P71 World Container Fleet.
•  P72 World Container Production.
•  P73 Evolution of prices of new containers.
•  P74 Evolution of leasing rates.
•  P76 Container port traffic for 62 developing countires and territories.
•  P79 Top 20 Container Terminals and their throughput for 2004 to 2006.
•  P91 Total freight forwarding market : Market Share.
•  P92 Global Freight Forwarding Market Size and Growth Rate.
•  P95 Real GDP growth rates of selected Asian economies.
•  P102 Container handling by Region.
•  P103 Trends in Global Container Shipping.
•  P103 The Proportion of Transhipment is increasing.
•  P104 Container ships on the advance.
•  P105 Container ship fleet is continually expanding (graph on value of Million TEU).
•  P105 Global Container Shipping stays on course for growth.
•  P109 Trend of the HARPEX.
•  P112 Average Charter Rates by size of Ship.

ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS USED:

•  ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations
•  BAF Bunkering adjustment factor
•  Bcm Billion cubic metres
•  CAF Currency adjustment factor
•  c.i.f. Cost, insurance and freight
•  dwt Deadweight tons
•  ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
•  EU European Union
•  FDI Foreign direct investment
•  FEU 40 inch - foot equivalent unit
•  f.o.b. Free on board
•  GDP Gross domestic product
•  GT Gross tons
•  IMF International Monetary Fund
•  IMO International Maritime Organization
•  ISO International Organization for Standardization
•  ISPS Code International Ship and Port Facility Security Code
•  LNG Liquefied natural gas
•  LPG Liquefied petroleum gas
•  mbpd Million barrels per day
•  n.a. Not Available
•  NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
•  n.e.s. Not Elsewhere Specified
•  OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
•  OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
•  TEU 20 inch - foot equivalent unit
•  THC Terminal Handling Charges
•  ULCC Ultra-large crude carrier
•  UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
•  VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
•  WS Worldscale
•  WCO World Customs Organization
•  WTO World Trade Organization

SOURCES and REFERENCES:

•  Alberghini, G. (2002) The Potential Benefits of a European Intermodal Network for the Transport of Maritime Containers, ITMMAPS-conference, Antwerp.
•  Ashar, A (2002) "Revolution Now," Containerisation International, January.
•  Baird, A.J. and Lindsay, A.J. (1996) Strategic Choice in the Global Container Shipping Industry: A Resource-Based Approach, IAME '96 Conference, International Association of Maritime Economists, Vancouver.
•  Brooks, M. (2001) Good Governance and Ports as Tools of Economic Development: Are They Compatible? Proceedings of the IAME2001 Conference, Hong Kong.
•  Evangelista, P. and Morvillo, A. (1998) Logistics Integration and Co-Operative Strategies in Liner Shipping: Some Empirical Evidence, paper presented at 8th World Conference on Transport Research, Antwerp, July 1998.
•  Gilman, S. (1999) "The Size Economies and Network Efficiency of Large Containerships," International Journal of Maritime Economics.
•  Heaver, T. (2002) "The Evolving Roles of Shipping Lines in International Logistics," International Journal of Maritime Economics.
•  MDS Intermodal (1998) The European Container Freight Market: Containers Inland. Chester.
•  Containerisation International Online, located London.
•  UNCTAD (2002) Review of Maritime Transport, Geneva.
•  UNCTAD (2005) Review of Maritime Transport, Geneva.
•  UNCTAD (2006) Review of Maritime Transport, Geneva.
•  UNCTAD (2007) Review of Maritime Transport, Geneva.
•  Harper Peterson & Co.
•  ISL - Institut fur Seeverkehrswirtschaft und Logistik.
•  Christopher, M. (1992) Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Strategies for Reducing Costs and Improving Services, Pitman Publishing, London.
•  Drewry Shipping Consultants (2003) Annual Review of Global Container Terminal Operators. London.
•  Mentzer, J. T., W. DeWitt, et al. A Unified Definition of Supply Chain Management.
•  Muller, G. Intermodal Freight Transportation. Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., 1999.
•  Clarkson Research Studies.
•  OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Online Library.
•  Wikipedia, the free internet based encyclopedia that anyone can edit.



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