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Economic Effects of Container Shipping into World Seaborne Trade - English

TABLE OF CONTENTSPg.
CONTAINERIZATION 01
History 01
Origins 01
Purpose built ships 02
Towards standards 03
Today 03
ISO standard Dimensions and payloads 04
Standard containers 05
Types 06
Double-stack containerization 06
INTERMODAL FREIGHT TRANSPORT 08
Introduction 08
Prehistory 08
History 08
Double-stacked container transport 10
Equipment 10
Containers 10
Handling equipment 11
Intermodal Vehicles 12
Rail Transport 12
Container ships 12
GLOBALIZATION AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE 13
Shipping and the global economy 15
Volume and Value of World Trade 16
Conference System 17
Origin of conference system 17
Open and Close Conference 18
Features of Liner Conference 18
Organisation of Conferences 19
Advantages of Coference 20
Disadvantages of Conference System 20
INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION AND SUPPLY CHAINS 22
Status of Intermodal Freight 23
Role in Hypercompetition of Supply Chains 24
Focus on Changing Customer Requirements 25
CONTAINER SHIPPING AND PORTS: OVERVIEW 25
Introduction 26
Instability in liner shipping 26
Scale increases in vessel size 28
Co-operation, mergers and acquisitions 29
Landside logistics as a revenue base, cost control & source of differentiation 30
CONTAINER SHIPPING AND THE ECONOMY 34
Economic Effects 34
Containerport Efficiencies 35
Historic Costs 36
Time Dimensions 37
Global Effects 38
WORLD ECONOMIC BACKGROUND 39
Merchandise trade 40
WORLD SEABORNE TRADE 43
Overall seaborne trade 43
World shipments by country groups 44
Developed countries 44
Developing countries 45
Demand for shipping services 46
SECTORS OF WORLD SEABORNE TRADE 47
Liner shipments of containerized cargoes 47
STRUCTURE OF THE WORLD FLEET 50
The world containership fleet 50
PRO. OF THE WORLD FLEET, AND SUPPLY & DEMAND IN WORLDSHIPPING 52
OPERATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY 52
SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN WORLD SHIPPING 54
Comparison of Cargo Turnover and Fleet Ownership 56
THE LINER SHIPPING MARKET 59
Developments in liner markets 59
Concentration in liner shipping 60
FREIGHT LEVEL of CONTAINERIZED SERVICES 61
Chartering of containerships 61
Freight rates on main routes 62
Supply and demand in respect of main liner services 64
Liner freight index 68
Liner freight rates as percentage of prices for selected commodities 68
ESTIMATES OF TOTAL FREIGHT COSTS IN WORLD TRADE 69
CONTAINER PRODUCTION 71
Leasing containers 73
PORT AND MULTIMODAL TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENTS 75
Container Port Traffic 75
Improvements in port performance 80
Institutional Change and Port Development 82
INLAND TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENTS 90
Logistics 90
REVIEW OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENTS : ASIA 94
Economic Background 94
Demographic background 96
Containerization 96
Direction of containerized trade 96
Container port traffic 96
Asian container terminal operators 98
Container manufacturing 100
Asian Fleet Development 100
Asian merchant fleet 100
CONCLUSION 101

LIST of TABLES & FIGURES:

•  P07 Top 10 container shipping companies in order of TEU capacity.
•  P36 Global Containerized Trade, 2001 to 2011 (Forecast).
•  P40 World Economic Growth, 2003 to 2006.
•  P41 Growth in volume of merchandise trade, by geographical region.
•  P43 Development of International Seaborne Trade, selected years.
•  P44 International Seaborne Trade for selected years.
•  P47 Graphic of Annualy Transportation Tonnages.
•  P51 Distrubition of the World Fleet and DWT Capasity of Containership.
•  P52 Ton-Miles performed DWT of total World Fleet.
•  P53 Estimated productivity of tankers, bulk carriers, combined carriers.
•  P54 Analysis of tonnage surplus by main type of vessel.
•  P55 Growth of Supply and Demand in Container Shipping.
•  P56 Trends in surplus capacity by main vessel types.
•  P58 Maritime Engagement of 25 Major Trading Nations.
•  P60 Growth of the World Cellular Container Fleet.
•  P63 Freight Rates per TEU on the three Major Liner Trade Routes.
•  P65 Estimated Cargo Flows on Major Trade Routes.
•  P66 Europe-Far East Trade: Percentage slot capacity share by line / grouping.
•  P70 Estimates of total freight costs as a percentage of value imports in world trade.
•  P71 World Container Fleet.
•  P72 World Container Production.
•  P73 Evolution of prices of new containers.
•  P74 Evolution of leasing rates.
•  P76 Container port traffic for 62 developing countires and territories.
•  P79 Top 20 Container Terminals and their throughput for 2004 to 2006.
•  P91 Total freight forwarding market : Market Share.
•  P92 Global Freight Forwarding Market Size and Growth Rate.
•  P95 Real GDP growth rates of selected Asian economies.
•  P102 Container handling by Region.
•  P103 Trends in Global Container Shipping.
•  P103 The Proportion of Transhipment is increasing.
•  P104 Container ships on the advance.
•  P105 Container ship fleet is continually expanding (graph on value of Million TEU).
•  P105 Global Container Shipping stays on course for growth.
•  P109 Trend of the HARPEX.
•  P112 Average Charter Rates by size of Ship.

ABBREVIATIONS and ACRONYMS USED:

•  ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations
•  BAF Bunkering adjustment factor
•  Bcm Billion cubic metres
•  CAF Currency adjustment factor
•  c.i.f. Cost, insurance and freight
•  dwt Deadweight tons
•  ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
•  EU European Union
•  FDI Foreign direct investment
•  FEU 40 inch - foot equivalent unit
•  f.o.b. Free on board
•  GDP Gross domestic product
•  GT Gross tons
•  IMF International Monetary Fund
•  IMO International Maritime Organization
•  ISO International Organization for Standardization
•  ISPS Code International Ship and Port Facility Security Code
•  LNG Liquefied natural gas
•  LPG Liquefied petroleum gas
•  mbpd Million barrels per day
•  n.a. Not Available
•  NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
•  n.e.s. Not Elsewhere Specified
•  OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
•  OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
•  TEU 20 inch - foot equivalent unit
•  THC Terminal Handling Charges
•  ULCC Ultra-large crude carrier
•  UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
•  VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier
•  WS Worldscale
•  WCO World Customs Organization
•  WTO World Trade Organization

SOURCES and REFERENCES:

•  Alberghini, G. (2002) The Potential Benefits of a European Intermodal Network for the Transport of Maritime Containers, ITMMAPS-conference, Antwerp.
•  Ashar, A (2002) "Revolution Now," Containerisation International, January.
•  Baird, A.J. and Lindsay, A.J. (1996) Strategic Choice in the Global Container Shipping Industry: A Resource-Based Approach, IAME '96 Conference, International Association of Maritime Economists, Vancouver.
•  Brooks, M. (2001) Good Governance and Ports as Tools of Economic Development: Are They Compatible? Proceedings of the IAME2001 Conference, Hong Kong.
•  Evangelista, P. and Morvillo, A. (1998) Logistics Integration and Co-Operative Strategies in Liner Shipping: Some Empirical Evidence, paper presented at 8th World Conference on Transport Research, Antwerp, July 1998.
•  Gilman, S. (1999) "The Size Economies and Network Efficiency of Large Containerships," International Journal of Maritime Economics.
•  Heaver, T. (2002) "The Evolving Roles of Shipping Lines in International Logistics," International Journal of Maritime Economics.
•  MDS Intermodal (1998) The European Container Freight Market: Containers Inland. Chester.
•  Containerisation International Online, located London.
•  UNCTAD (2002) Review of Maritime Transport, Geneva.
•  UNCTAD (2005) Review of Maritime Transport, Geneva.
•  UNCTAD (2006) Review of Maritime Transport, Geneva.
•  UNCTAD (2007) Review of Maritime Transport, Geneva.
•  Harper Peterson & Co.
•  ISL - Institut fur Seeverkehrswirtschaft und Logistik.
•  Christopher, M. (1992) Logistics and Supply Chain Management: Strategies for Reducing Costs and Improving Services, Pitman Publishing, London.
•  Drewry Shipping Consultants (2003) Annual Review of Global Container Terminal Operators. London.
•  Mentzer, J. T., W. DeWitt, et al. A Unified Definition of Supply Chain Management.
•  Muller, G. Intermodal Freight Transportation. Eno Transportation Foundation, Inc., 1999.
•  Clarkson Research Studies.
•  OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Online Library.
•  Wikipedia, the free internet based encyclopedia that anyone can edit.



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