I am an Advanced Open Water Diver licensed by PADI and Rescue Diver licensed by Navy which brings a great opportunity for traveling as well as exploring the nature as hobby. Check-out the following video which was recorded at Koh Samui/Thailand with a GoPro 5 camera to enjoy Whale Sharks and the colors of the mother-earth.

Free-diving & spearfishing remain challenge with good memories back in Cyprus.

This is the page to share information about "abyss".

Abyss Contents

  • Diving Spots in Turkiye.
  • Free-Diving
  • Apnea
  • Mechanism
  • Hyperventilation
  • Apneic Oxygenation
  • Apnea Test

    Diving Spots in Turkiye

    Fethiye is a relaxed holiday town with over twenty quality dives, going from shallow, right outside of the harbour, to over 50 metres in depth. The lack of any currents in this area makes it extremely safe and ideal for beginners. Dalyan Bay is the most popular site for beginner and advanced divers alike. It is easily accessible, with abundant fish. The Afkule Wall is a beautiful dive, home to Moray eels hiding in its cracks. It has colourful coral surrounding an impressive open cavern, from whence it has received its notoriety.

    Marmaris is a long, laid back beach town, with a beautiful mountain backdrop, also visible from many of its local dive spots. Kadirga Rock is the best dive at Marmaris; another site with archaeological past, you may be able to find some ancient ship anchors, along with the obligatory amphora. The Rock has wide ranging marine life for this area, including a friendly resident Grouper.

    For history buffs, Gallipoli and the Dardanelles are immediately recognisable as the sites of a huge failed military campaign, carried out by the British and the French against the Turks during the First World War. As such, the seas surrounding these areas are littered with scores of wrecks from this era. Most diving trips in this area will go from Cannakkale to the Sulva Bay area. Here lie wrecks such as the Lundi, a British military cargo vessel sunk in 27 metres of sea. You can still access the hold of this ship, which is still largely intact. Many also choose to dive on the unknown troop and provision carrier that was sunk just off of ANZAC Cove. This is probably due to its proximity to the beach, but it is also an atmospheric reminder of the destruction and slaughter that occurred at that place just under a hundred years ago.

    Bodrum overlooks a number of small rock islands and reefs that channel water to produce light currents, attracting larger fish to the area. As one of the largest Aegean towns, Bodrum also attracts a healthy number of dive instructors and guide companies. The Amphora fields are an extensive area littered with ancient amphora vessels, used to carry goods via shipping up to 3000 years ago. Over time, the vessels would have been discarded or lost overboard, as they sailed in and out of Bodrum, a major trading post. Most of the amphora is broken but many are still intact and strikingly well preserved.

    Kas probably comes top of all the Turkish dive sites, due to the range, frequency and quality of the dives. There are plenty of caves, reefs and wrecks in the area, along with abundant marine life such as Moray eel, rays and Hawksbill turtles. The area encompasses Arkeopark, the site of a ship wreck dating from the 14th Century BC, the oldest known. The actual wreck has been raised and taken to the Bodrum Museum for its preservation and further study, but a replica has been laid in its place and the area is now open to divers, following extensive recording and excavation. The wreck of a World War Two Italian aircraft, sometimes called 'Flying Fish,' is seen as one of Turkey's best dives. The preservation is excellent. At 65 metres, however, this is a technical dive for the more experienced.

    The area around Kas belongs to the Top 100 diving destinations worldwide. This is because this area have an high amount of underwater life, combined with very clear water ( up to 40 meters visibility ) and beautiful underwater landscapes.

    There are around 30 different dive spots, that are all reachable within 30 minutes starting from the harbour of kas. Diving in Kas contains an huge amount of possibilities like wreck-diving, cave-diving, underwater canyons, a lot of stone reefs, swim-throughs & tunnels, nightdiving as well as underwater art exhibitions and many great places for swimming & snorcling.

    The marine life : Barakuda, Stingrays, Sea-Turtles, rare Snails, Dorades, Jackfishes, Soldierfishes, Octopusses, Muray-Eels, Trumpetfishes, many kinds of Brasses as well as huge Groupers of several kinds and many more amazing underwater lifeforms are seen regulary in this area.

    Below spots located in Kas, Antalya - Turkiye

    Pegeon Island
    Time to go by boat : 15 minutes
    Max depht : 5 - 22 meters
    Things to see : Octopus, Muray Eels, Brasses, Soldier Fishes, Jackfishes, Trigger-Fishes, Groupers, ancient cans, underwater art exhibitions
    Adaptable to : All divers ( Underwater Art Exhibition is also interesting for snorcling )

    Two Brothers
    Time to go by boat : 20 minutes
    Max depht : 8- 40 meters
    Things to see : Rare Snails, Stingrays, Octopus, Muray Eels, Brasses, Jackfishes, Trigger-Fishes, Groupers
    Adaptable to : Beginners & experienced divers. Interesting area for underwater photography.

    Blue Hole
    Time to go by boat : 25 minutes
    Max depht : 14- 40 meters
    Things to see : Anemones, Crabs, Octopus, soft-corals & Groupers
    Adaptable to : Experienced divers. It is a kind of cave diving.

    Canyon
    Time to go by boat : 20 minutes
    Max depht : 8- 40 meters
    Things to see : , Underwater Canyon, Shipwreck, Rare Snails, Barakuda, Octopus, Muray Eels, Brasses, Jackfishes, Groupers
    Adaptable to : Experienced divers. beginners may visit the canyon but not the shipwreck ( 30 - 42 meters depht )

    Mavi Wrack & Paradise Reef
    Time to go by boat : 15 minutes
    Max depht : 8- 40 meters
    Things to see : , Wooden Shipwreck, Soldierfishes, Stingrays, Snails, Octopus, Muray Eels, Brasses, Jackfishes, Groupers
    Adaptable to : Beginners & experienced divers. The wreck is 20 meters, the Paradise reef up to 40 meters.

    Lighthouse Reef & Otoman Wreck
    Time to go by boat : 5 minutes
    Max depht : 3- 25 meters
    Things to see : , 180 year old otoman ship wreck, ancient cans, Rare Snails, Stingrays, Octopus, fish-farm, Muray Eels, Brasses, Jackfishes, Trigger-Fishes, Groupers, jellyfishes & crabs
    Adaptable to : Beginners & experienced divers.

    Assi Island
    Time to go by boat : 25 minutes
    Max depht : 8- 40 meters
    Things to see : Anemones, soft corals, Rare Snails, Stingrays, Octopus, Muray Eels, Brasses, Jackfishes, Trigger-Fishes, Groupers
    Adaptable to : Beginners & experienced divers. Limit for beginners : 20 meter.

    Cave II
    Time to go by boat : 10 minutes
    Max depht : 8- 40 meters
    Things to see : cave that is filled with sweet water. also several swimthoughs. many small fishes, sometimes sea turtle.
    Adaptable to : Experienced divers. AOWD minimum.

    Flying Fish
    Time to go by boat : 30 minutes
    Max depht : 6- 65 meters
    Things to see : Airplane wreck from second world war ( 50-65 meters ) , Barakuda, Rare Snails, Stingrays, Octopus, Muray Eels, Brasses, Jackfishes, Trigger-Fishes, mayn huge Groupers
    Adaptable to : Beginners & experienced divers. Airplane wreck is only allowed to very experienced divers with minimum 100 logged dives and an approval by an SIRENA instructor.


    Free-Diving

    Free-diving is a technique used with various aquatic activities. While in general all aquatic activities that include breath-hold diving might be classified as a part of free-diving, some sports are more accepted than others. Examples of recognized free-diving activities are (non-) competitive free-diving, (non-) competitive spear-fishing , free-diving photography and mermaid shows. Less recognised examples of free-diving include, but are not limited to, synchronised swimming , underwater rugby , underwater hockey , underwater hunting other than spearfishing, and snorkeling . The discussion remains whether free-diving is only a synonym for breath-hold diving or whether it describes a specific group of underwater activities. Free-diving is often strongly associated with competitive breath-hold diving or Competitive Apnea. It is a sport in which competitors attempt to attain great depths, times, or distances on a single breath and without the assistance of breathing apparatus like SCUBA . The following remainder of this article will only discuss competitive free-diving as an athletic sport.

    Apnea

    Apnea or apnoea is a technical term for suspension of external breathing . During apnea there is no movement of the muscles of respiration and the volume of the lungs initially remains unchanged. Depending on the patency (openness) of the airways there may or may not be a flow of gas between the lungs and the environment; gas exchange within the lungs and cellular respiration is not affected. Apnea can be voluntarily achieved (e.g., " holding one's breath "), drug -induced (e.g., opiate toxicity), mechanically induced (e.g., strangulation ), or it can occur as a consequence of neurological disease or trauma.

    Mechanism

    Under normal conditions, humans cannot store much oxygen in the body. Prolonged apnea leads to severe lack of oxygen in the blood circulation . Permanent brain damage can occur after as little as three minutes and death will inevitably ensue after a few more minutes unless ventilation is restored. However, under special circumstances such as hypothermia , hyperbaric oxygenation , apneic oxygenation (see below), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation , much longer periods of apnea may be tolerated without severe consequences.

    Untrained humans cannot sustain voluntary apnea for more than one or two minutes. (Smokers, in most cases, can only endure much shorter periods of voluntary apnea due to damages to the lung 's alveoli and thus their lung capacities and gas exchange efficiency are decreased). The reason for the time limit of voluntary apnea is that the rate of breathing and the volume of each breath are tightly regulated to maintain constant values of CO 2 tension and pH of the blood . In apnea, CO 2 is not removed through the lungs and accumulates in the blood. The consequent rise in CO 2 tension and drop in pH result in stimulation of the respiratory centre in the brain which eventually cannot be overcome voluntarily.

    When a person is immersed in water, physiological changes due to the mammalian diving reflex enable somewhat longer tolerance of apnea even in untrained persons. Tolerance can in addition be trained. The ancient technique of free-diving requires breath-holding, and world-class free-divers can indeed hold their breath underwater up to depths of 214 metres and for more than nine minutes. Apneists , in this context, are people who can hold their breath for a long time.

    Hyperventilation

    Many people have discovered, on their own, that voluntary hyperventilation before beginning voluntary apnea allows them to hold their breath for a longer period. Some of these people incorrectly attribute this effect to increased oxygen in the blood, not realizing that it is actually due to a decrease in CO 2 in the blood and lungs. Blood leaving the lungs is normally fully saturated with oxygen, so hyperventilation of normal air cannot increase the amount of oxygen available. Lowering the CO 2 concentration increases the time before the respiratory center becomes stimulated, as described above.

    This error has led some people to use hyperventilation as a means to increase their diving time, not realizing that there is a danger that their body may exhaust its oxygen while underwater, before they feel any urge to breathe, and that they can suddenly lose consciousness - a shallow water blackout - as a result. If a person loses consciousness underwater, especially in fresh water, there is a considerable danger that they will drown. An alert diving partner would be in the best position to rescue such a person.

    Apneic oxygenation

    Because the exchange of gases between the blood and airspace of the lungs is independent of the movement of gas to and from the lungs, enough oxygen can be delivered to the circulation even if a person is apneic. This phenomenon ( apneic oxygenation ) is explained as follows:

    With the onset of apnea, an underpressure develops in the airspace of the lungs, because more oxygen is absorbed than CO 2 is released. With the airways closed or obstructed, this will lead to a gradual collapse of the lungs. However, if the airways are patent (open), any gas supplied to the upper airways will follow the pressure gradient and flow into the lungs to replace the oxygen consumed. If pure oxygen is supplied, this process will serve to replenish the oxygen stores in the lungs. The uptake of oxygen into the blood will then remain at the usual level and the normal functioning of the organs will not be affected.

    However, no CO 2 is removed during apnea. The partial pressure of CO 2 in the airspace of the lungs will quickly equilibrate with that of the blood. As the blood is loaded with CO 2 from the metabolism, more and more CO 2 will accumulate and eventually displace oxygen and other gases from the airspace. CO 2 will also accumulate in the tissues of the body, resulting in respiratory acidosis .

    Under ideal conditions (i.e., if pure oxygen is breathed before onset of apnea to remove all nitrogen from the lungs, and pure oxygen is insufflated), apneic oxygenation could theoretically be sufficient to provide enough oxygen for survival of more than one hour's duration in a healthy adult. However, accumulation of carbon dioxide (described above) would remain the limiting factor.

    Apneic oxygenation is more than a physiologic curiosity. It can be employed to provide a sufficient amount of oxygen in thoracic surgery when apnea cannot be avoided, and during manipulations of the airways such as bronchoscopy , intubation , and surgery of the upper airways. However, because of the limitations described above, apneic oxygenation is inferior to extracorporal circulation using a heart-lung machine and is therefore used only in emergencies and for short procedures.

    Apnea test

    An apnea test can be used to determine whether or not someone is brain dead —if they are unable to breathe unaided (that is, with no life support systems) for a certain amount of time, then the apnea test is considered to be positive and brain death is confirmed.

    Sources : Diverdaily & SirenaDive


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